. I refer to the butterfly with the feminine pronoun “she,” not only to be in conformity with the trend of feminizing pronouns, but also to serve my purpose of interpreting the image of butterfly as feminine which, as I will show below, corresponds to the Jungian concept of feminine anima (for man).
. Qiwulun chapter of the Zhuangzi: Xi zhe Zhuangzhuo meng wei hudie, xuxu ran hudie ye. Zi yu shizhi yu! Buzhi Zhou ye. Eran jue, ze ququ ran Zhou ye. Buzhi Zhou zhi meng wei hudie yu, hudie zhi meng wei Zhou yu? Zhou yu hudie, ze bi you fen yi. Ci zhi wei wuhua. 昔者莊周夢為胡蝶,栩栩然胡蝶也。自喻適志與!不知周也。 俄然覺,則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與,胡蝶之夢為周與?周與胡蝶,則必有 分矣。此之謂物化。 I closely follow Kuang-ming Wu’s The Butterfly as Companion (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990), 153, in translating this passage except for some key disagreements. The boldfaced words are found in the original text, while words in plain font are less explicit in the text. Those even less explicit are put in brackets.
. See: Zhihua Yao, The Buddhist Theory of Self-Cognition (London and New York: Routledge, 2005).
. See: Zhongwen Da Cidian 《中文大辭典》 (Taipei: Zhongguo Wenhua Yanjiusuo, 1962–1968), 7169. The Ningbofu Zhi 《寧波府志》 and the Yishi Zhi 《宜室志》, considered to be faithful firsthand records, do not have the last scene of transforming into butterflies. Rather they stop at the scene where Liang and Zhu were buried together. The later tradition recorded in the Piling Zhi 《毗陵志》(cited in the Taoxi Keyu《桃溪客語》) adds the folklore of transformation into butterflies. It is inter- esting to note how a love story is mythologized. And the basis of this mythologization is that the popular mind after the fourth century still had the belief that human being or human soul can be transformed into a butterfly.
. Zheng Binling 鄭炳林 and Yang Pin 羊萍, Dunhuang Ben Mengshu 《敦煌本夢書》 (Lanzhou: Gansu Wenhua Chubanshe, 1995), 429.
. Gustavus Hindman Miller, Ten Thousand Dreams Interpreted (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1984), 113.
. Manabu Waida, “Insects,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), Vol. VII, 256.
. See: The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed. eds. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), under “Psyche”; also Louis Charbonneau-Lassay, The Bestiary of Christ, trans. and abridged by D. M. Dooling (New York: Arkana, 1992), 345–51. The original source for this idea is Aristotle’s History of Animals, 551a. My thanks to a peer reviewer for this reference.
. See: N. W. Thomas, “Animals,” in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. James Hastings (New York: Scribner, 1959), Vol. I, 506.
. JanetCatherineBerlo,“TheWarriorandtheButterfly:CentralMexicanIdeologiesof Sacred Warfare and Teotihuacan Iconography,” in Text and Image in Pre-Columbian Art: Essay on the Interrelationship of the Verbal and Visual Arts, ed. Janet Catherine Berlo (Oxford: B.A.R., 1983), 85.
. Ibid., 86.
. G. William Domoff, The Mystique of Dreams: A Search for Utopia through Senoi Dream Theory (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 23.
. Dazongshi chapter of the Zhuangzi: Qie ru meng wei niao er li hu tian, meng wei yu er mei yu yuan. Bu shi jin zhi yan zhe, qi jue zhe hu? Qi meng zhe hu?
. Interestingly enough, a video clip entitled “Welcome 1” in the CD-ROM version of Windows 95 depicts a butterfly flying up to a man while he is meditating, singing, enjoying flowers, and drawing; it then becomes the window to his mind. Finally, he himself becomes the butterfly, flying around, and turning into the start screen of Windows 95. Bill Plympton, its designer, presents us with the most contemporary version of the butterfly as a symbol of human soul.
. My thanks to Terre Fisher, who suggested this point and also helped improve my writing style.
. Zhile chapter of the Zhuangzi: Wu zu zhi gen wei qicao, qi ye wei hudie. Hudie xu ye, hua er wei chong, sheng yu zao xia. 烏足之根為蠐螬,其葉為胡蝶。胡蝶胥也, 化而為蟲,生於灶下。
. Tan Jingsheng 譚景昇, Huashu 《化書》, in the Daozang 《道藏》 (Shanghai: Shanghai Shudian Chubanshe, 1988), Vol. 36, 297: Lao feng hua wei yu ren, xiu mai hua wei hudie, zi wuqing er zhi youqing ye. 老楓化為羽人,朽麥化為蝴蝶, 自無情而之有情也。.
. See: Yan Bao 燕寶, Miaozu guge《苗族古歌》 = Hxak Lul Hxak Ghot (Guiyang: Guizhou Mingzu Chubanshe, 1993), 481–516.
. Tomyknowledge,theonlyexceptionsareSkogemannandXiaoBing.Inhis“Chuang Tzu and the Butterfly Dream,” Journal of Analytical Psychology 31, no. 1 (1986): 75–90, Pia Skogemann indicates the symbolic meaning of Zhuangzi’s butterfly being human soul and explores the butterfly dream with the aid of Jungian psychology. More recently, Xiao Ping’s 蕭兵 Hudie Meng: Ai, Linghun, Fuhuo Yu Shenmei 《蝴蝶夢:愛、靈魂、復活與審美》 (Shanghai: Shanghai Wenyi Chubanshe, 2007) focuses on the literature sources to explore the symbolic meaning of the butterfly, but it does not touch upon most of the sources I am discussing here.
. See: Jung H. Lee, “What Is It Like to Be a Butterfly? A Philosophical Interpretation of Zhuangzi’s Butterfly Dream,” Asian Philosophy 17, no. 2 (2007): 185–202, and Xiaoqiang Han, “Interpreting the Butterfly Dream,” Asian Philosophy 19, no. 1 (2009): 1–9.
. Having reached this conclusion, I am not going to discuss such issues as to whether this universality is in a historical or psychological sense, whether it is shared only by the ancient traditions or by any human mind. For scholars of religion, these are interesting topics and they may have a fruitful research if adopting proper method- ology. But some see methodology as a choice of faith, and they seem to have to decide between historical and psychological approaches, between Eliade and Jung. I do not think this is healthy. I would rather leave these issues open to the future, wait and see what new evidence can be found in various disciplines.
. Zhibeiyou chapter of the Zhuangzi: Yi hua er sheng, you hua er si, shengwu ai zhi, renlei bei zhi. Jie qi tian tao, duo qi tian yi, fen hu wan hu, hunpo jiang wang, nai shen cong zhi, nai da gui hu! 已化而生,又化而死,生物哀之,人類悲之。解其天弢, 墮其天口,紛乎宛乎,魂魄將往,乃身從之,乃大歸乎!
. Tiandao chapter of the Zhuangzi: Qi gui bu sui, qi hun bu pi. 其鬼不祟,其魂不疲。
. Keyi chapter of the Zhuangzi: Qi shen chuncui, qi hun bu ba. 其神純粹,其魂不罷。
. Qiwulun chapter of the Zhuangzi: Qi mei ye hun jiao, qi jue ye xing kai. 其寐也魂交,其覺也形開。
. Yu-lan Fung, Chuang-tzu, A New Selected Translation with an Exposition of the Philosophy of Kuo Hsiang (New York: Paragon, 1964), 64. In his “Zhuangzi’s ‘Dream of the Butterfly’: A Daoist Interpretation,” Philosophy East & West 49, no. 4 (1999): 439–50, Hans-Georg Möller argues that contemporary scholars have misrepresented Guo Xiang to expound a view of existential indifference, but Guo Xiang himself rather emphasizes the difference between life and death, butterfly and Zhuang Zhou. But I think Guo Xiang’s emphasis on the difference is to serve the purpose of seeing them as indifference from the point of view of Dao.
. ee Lu Shuzhi 陸樹芝, Zhuangzi Xue 《莊子雪》, in Yan Lingfeng 嚴靈峰, ed., Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian《無求備齋莊子集成續編》 (Taipei: Yiwen Yinshuguan, 1974), Vol. 34, 83; Chen Zhian 陳治安, Nanhua Zhenjing Benyi 《南華真經本義》, in Yan Lingfeng, Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian, Vol. 26, 115; Lin Xiyi 林希逸, Nanhua Zhenjing Kouyi 《南華真經口義》, in Yan Lingfeng, Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian, Vol. 7, 121; Liu Wu 劉武, Zhuangzi Jijie Neipian Buzheng《莊子集解內篇補正》, in Yan Lingfeng, Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian, Vol. 42, 63.
. uotedfromRobertE.Allinson,Chuang-Tzu:ForSpiritualTransformation(Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), 88.
. See: Li Zhi 李贄, Zhuangzi Jie 《莊子解》, in Yan Lingfeng 嚴靈峰, ed., Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian《無求備齋莊子集成續編》 (Taipei: Yiwen Yinshuguan, 1974), Vol. 18, 62–63; Qian Chengzhi 錢澄之, Zhuangzi Gu 《莊子詁》, in Yan Lingfeng, Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian, Vol. 31, 103; Zhang Taiyan 章太炎, Qiwulun Shi Dingben 《齊物論釋定本》 (Taipei: Yiwen yinshuguan, 1919), 129–40.
. See: Deqing 德清, Zhuangzi Neipian Zhu 《莊子內篇注》, in Yan Lingfeng 嚴靈峰, ed., Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian《無求備齋莊子集成續編》 (Taipei: Yiwen Yinshuguan, 1974), Vol. 25, 73.
. Kuang-mingWu,“DreaminNietzscheandChuangTzu,”JournalofChinesePhiloso- phy 13, no. 4 (1986): 379.
. Allinson, Chuang-Tzu: For Spiritual Transformation, 84.
. J. Allan Hobson, The Dreaming Brain (New York: Basic Books, 1988), 5.
. Wu, The Butterfly as Companion, 183. See also David L. Hall and Roger T. Ames, Thinking from the Han (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998), 57–8.
. C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (New York: Vintage, 1965), 322–3.
. Ibid., 20.
. C. G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy (New York: Pantheon Books, 1954), 41.
. C. G. Jung, The Development of Personality (New York: Pantheon Books, 1953), 52.
. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 324.
. heng Yining 程以寧, Nanhua Zhenjing Zhushu 《南華真經注疏》, in Yan Lingfeng
嚴靈峰, ed., Wuqiubei Zhai Zhuangzi Jicheng Xubian《無求備齋莊子集成續編》 (Taipei: Yiwen Yinshuguan, 1974), Vol. 28, 59: Ren meng zhong neng bianhua zhe, hun yu po jiao ye. Di zhu qi bianhua zhe, po ye; hun buneng zhu zhi er. Ruo you dao zhi shi, ze bi xian mie po erhou hun chang, qianbianwanhua wei wo zhuzhang. Ren naihe buzhi mie po er zhou jue ye meng yi zhongshen. Kuang bing qi suowei jue zhe, er zhong cheng yi da meng ye, ai zai! 人夢中能變化者,魂與魄交也。第主其變化者,魄也; 魂不能主之耳。若有道之士,則必先滅魄而後魂昌,千變萬化惟我主張。人奈何不知 滅魄而晝覺夜夢以終身。況並其所謂覺者,而終成一大夢也,哀哉!
. See: C. G. Jung, Alchemical Studies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), 38–43; also his The Archetypes and the Collective Unconsciousness (New York: Pan- theon, 1953), 320, n. 92.