دین در حوزه عمومی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

کارشناس ارشد دین شناسی

چکیده

حوزه عمومی، عرصه‌ای از زندگی اجتماعی است که مردم در آن گرد هم آمده، آشکارا و آزادانه دربارة موضوعات مورد علاقه خودشان با یکدیگر گفت‌وگو می­کنند و در صورت امکان به یک فهم مشترک دست می‌یابند. منظور از حوزه عمومی در این متن، عرصه سیاسی است که اجتماعاتی همچون ملت، دولت و جامعه مدنی را دربرمی‌گیرد. از سوی دیگر دین نه خارج از حوزه عمومی قرار دارد و نه عاملی خنثا نسبت به حوزه عمومی قلمداد می‌شود. پرسش این است که در جوامع مدرن، دین در حوزه عمومی به چه اَشکالی ظهور یافته است. نویسنده در این متن از پنج شکل ظهوریافتة دین در حوزه عمومی ــ یعنی دین دولتی، دین مدنی، ناسیونالیسم دینی، دین عامه و مشروعیت دینی قدرت سیاسی ــ نام برده و آنها را بررسی کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Anderson, Benedict (1983), Imagined Communities, London: Verso.
Arjomand, Said Amir (1993), "Shi’ite Jurisprudence and Constitution Making in the Islamic Republic of Iran", In: Fundamentalisms and the State, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, 88–109, Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Beckford and Sophie Gilliat (1998), Religion in Prison: Equal Rites in a Multi-Faith Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bellah, Robert N. (1964), "Religious evolution", American Sociological Review,29: 358–74.
___________ (1967), Civil Religion in America, Daedalus, 96: 1–21.
___________ (1972), Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World.
___________ (1975), The Broken Covenant, American Civil Religion in Time of Trial, New York: The Seabury Press.
___________ (1976), "Response to the Panel on Civil Religion", Sociological Analysis 37: 153–9.
___________ (1980), "Introduction", In: Varieties of Civil Religion by Robert N. Bellah and Phillip E. Hammond, vii–xv, San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.
Berger, Peter L. (ed.) (1999), The Desecularization of the World. Resurgent Religion and World Politics, Grand Rapids, MI: The Ethics and Public Policy Center and Wm. B. Eerdmans.
Biale, David J. (1983), "Mysticism and Politics in Modern Israel: The Messianic Ideology of Abraham Isaac Ha-Cohen Kook", In: Religion and Politics in the Modern World, edited by Peter H. Merkl and Ninian Smart, New York and London: New York University Press.
Calhoun, Craig (1997), Nationalism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Casanova, José (1994), Public Religions in the Modern World, Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
___________ (2001), "Religion, the New Millennium and Globalization", Sociology of Religion, 62 (4): 415–41.
Demerath III, Nicholas Jay (2001), Crossing the Gods, World Religions and Worldly Politics, New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.
Esposito, John L. (1999), The Islamic Threat, Myth or Reality?,New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fenn, Richard (1970), "The Process of Secularization: A Post-Parsonian View", Journal for the Scientific Study of Religioni,9 (2): 117–136.
___________ (1972), "Toward a New Sociology of Religion", Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,11 (1): 16–32.
___________ (1976), "Bellah and the New Orthodoxy", Sociological Analysis,37(2):160–66.
Frykenberg, Robert Eric (1993), "Hindu Fundamentalism and the Structural Stability of India", In: Fundamentalisms and the State, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Furseth, Inger (1994), "Civil Religion in a Low Key: The Case of Norway", Acta Sociologica,37: 39–54.
Gehrig, Gail (1981a), American Civil Religion: An Assessment, Monograph Series, Storrs, CT: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.
___________ (1981b), "The American Civil Religion Debate: A Source for Theory Construction", Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,20 (1): 51–63.
Gill, Robin (1975), The Social Context of Theology, Oxford: Mowbrays.
Habermas, Jürgen (1982), "A Reply to my Critics", In: Habermas. Critical Debates, edited by John B. Thompson and David Held, London: Macmillan.
___________ (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. I. London: Heinemann.
Harmati, Béla (ed.) (1984), The Church and Civil Religion in the Nordic Countries of Europe,Geneva: The Lutheran World Federation.
___________ (ed.) (1985), The Church and Civil Religion in Asia, Geneva: The Lutheran World Federation.
Haynes, Jeff (1998), Religion in Global Politics, London and New York: Longman.
Ignatieff, Michael (1993), Blood and Belonging. Journeys into the New Nationalism, New York: The Noonday Press.
Ivekovic, Ivan (2002), "Nationalism and the Political Use and Abuse of Religion: The Politicization of Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Islam in Yugoslav Successor States", Social Compass,49 (4): 523–36.
Juergensmeyer, Mark (1993), The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lease, Gary (1983), "The Origins of National Socialism: Some Fruits of Religion and Nationalism", In: Religion and Politics in the Modern World, edited by Peter H. Merkl and Ninian Smart, New York and London: New York University Press.
Liebman, Charles S. and Eliezer Don-Yehiya (1983), Civil Religion in Israel, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Marty, Martin E. (1974), "Two Kinds of Two Kinds of Civil Religion" In: American Civil Religion, edited by R.E. Richey and D.G. Jones, New York: Harper & Row.
___________ (1998), "Public Religion", In: Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, edited by William H. Swatos, Jr., 393–4. Walnut Creek, CA, London, New Delhi: AltaMira Press.
Mathisen, James A. (1989) "Twenty Years after Bellah: Whatever Happened to American Civil Religion?", Sociological Analysis,50 (2): 129–46.
Mayer, Ann Elisabeth (1993), "The Fundamentalist Impact on Law, Politics, and Constitutions in Iran, Pakistan, and the Sudan", In: Fundamentalisms and the State, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Norcliffe, David (1999), Islam, Faith and Practice, Brighton, UK and Portland, OR: Sussex Academic Press.
Ramet, Pedro (ed.) (1984), Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Repstad, Pål (2002), Dype, stille, sterke, milde. Religiøs makt i dagens Norge [Deep, quiet, strong, mild. Religious power in contemporary Norway], Oslo: Gyldendal.
Richey, Russel E. and Donald G. Jones (1974), American Civil Religion, New York: Harper & Row.
Robbins (1989), "Church-and-state issues in the United States", In: Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, edited by William H. Swatos, Jr., Walnut Creek, CA, London, New Delhi: AltaMira Press.
Smart, Ninian (1983), "Religion, Myth, and Nationalism", In: Religion and Politics in the Modern World, edited by Peter H. Merkl and Ninian Smart, New York and London: New York University Press.
Smith, Anthony (1983), Theories of Nationalism, London: Duckworth.
Smith, Donald E. (1990), "The Limits of Religious Resurgence", In: Religious Resurgence and Politics in the Contemporary World, edited by Emile Sahliyeh, Albany: State University of New York Press.
Sundback, Susan (1984), "Folk Church Religion – A Kind of Civil Religion?", In: The Church and Civil Religion in the Nordic Countries of Europe, edited by BelaHarmati, Geneva: The Lutheran World Federation.
Thomas, Michael C. and Charles C. Flippen (1972), "American Civil Religion: An Empirical Study", Social Forces, 51: 218–25.
Turner, Bryan S. (1991), Religion and Social Theory, London, Newbury Park, CA, New Delhi: Sage.
Wilson, John F. (1979), Public Religion in American Culture, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Wimberley, Ronald C. (1979), "Continuity and the Measurement of Civil Religion", Sociological Analysis, 40: 59–62.