نگاهی به جهان زیرین در ادیان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد تاریخ مطالعات دینی و بودایی در دانشکدهٔ دین‌شناسی دانشگاه وِست

2 دانش آموخته دکتری فلسفه غرب دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

جی. بروس لانگ، نویسنده این مدخل، مقاطع کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری خود را در رشتهٔ تاریخ ادیان و در دانشگاه شیکاگو پشت سر گذاشته و تحقیقات وی عمدتاً در زمینه‌های هندوییسم، بودیسم، اسطوره‌شناسی و هرمنوتیک بودایی است. از وی تا کنون دو کتاب و بیش از 30 مقالهٔ پژوهشی در مجلات دین‌شناسی آمریکایی، اروپایی و هندی به چاپ رسیده است. همچنین، وی علاوه بر مدخل «جهان زیرین»، سه مدخل دیگر (Life, Reincarnation, Webs and Nets) را نیز در همین دایرةالمعارف نگاشته است. در مدخل پیش رو، نویسنده مفهوم جهان زیرین را در ادیان ابتدایی، مصر باستان، آشوریان و بابلیان، یونان و روم، یهودیت، مسیحیت، اسلام و آیین هندو بررسی می­کند و در پایان نگاهی دارد به دیدگاه سکولار به جهان زیرین.

کلیدواژه‌ها


آثار عمومی:

Brandon, S. G. F. (1967). The Judgment of the Dead, London.

Mew, James (1971). Traditional Aspects of Hell (Ancient and Modern) (1903), Ann Arbor.

ادیان باستانی خاور نزدیک:

Heidel, Alexander (1963). The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, 2d ed., Chicago.

Frankfort, Henri (1948). Kingship and the Gods, Chicago.

Pritchard, James B. (ed. 1969). Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, 3d ed., Princeton.

ادیان یونانی و رومی:

Dietrich, B. C. (1965). Death, Fate and the Gods, London.

Farnell, Lewis R. (1970). Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality (1921), Oxford.

Nilsson, Martin P. (1949). A History of Greek Religion, 2d ed. Translated by F. J. Fielden, Oxford.

یهودیت:

Charles, R. H. (1913). A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, 2d ed., rev. & enl, London.

Ginzberg, Louis (1946-1955). The Legends of the Jews (1909-1928), 7 vols. Translated by Henrietta Szold et al. Philadelphia.

Graves, Robert; Patai, Raphael (1966). Hebrew Myths, New York.

مسیحیت:

Dante, Alighieri (1980). Inferno, Translated by Allen Mandelbaum, Berkeley.

Jeremias, Joachim (1968). "Hades", Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 1, edited by Gerhard Kittel, Grand Rapids, Mich.

Mew, James (1971). "Christian Hell", his Traditional Aspects of Hell (Ancient and Modern) (1903), Ann Arbor.

Walker, Daniel P. (1964). The Decline of Hell: Seventeenth Century Discussions of Eternal Torment, Chicago.

اسلام:

Asín Palacios, Miguel (1926). Islam and the Divine Comedy, Translated by Harold Sunderland, London.

Smith, Jane I.; Haddad, Yvonne Y. (1980). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection, Albany, N. Y.

Morris, James W. (1981). The Wisdom of the Throne: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra, Princeton.

هندوییسم:

Brown, W. Norman (1941). “The Rigvedic Equivalent for Hell", in: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 61 (June), pp. 76-80.

Gombrich, Richard F. (1975). "Ancient Indian Cosmology", In: Ancient Cosmologies, edited by Carmen Blacker and Michael Loewe, pp. 110-142. London.

Jacobi, Hermann (1914). "Cosmogony and Cosmology (Indian)", In: Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 4, edited by James Hastings, Edinburgh.

Hopkins, E. Washburn (1915 & 1969). Epic Mythology, New York.

Macdonell, A. A.(1897). Vedic Mythology, Strassburg.

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Betz, Hans Dieter (1990). “Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus.” In: Gesammelte Aufsatze, vol. 1, Hellenismus und Urchristentum, pp. 147–155, Tubingen.

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